Answer all the questions in this section.

1 (a) Name two theories of the origin of the earth.                                              (2marks)

(b) State three effects of the rotation of the earth on its own axis.                    (3 marks)

2(a) State two ways in which underground water may reach the earth’s   surface                                                                                                                                (2marks).

(b) Draw a well labelled diagram of the hydrological                                        (5marks)

3. Give three reasons why the recording of data at a school weather may beinaccurate                                                                                                                              (3marks)

4 (a) What is natural vegetation?                                                                           (2marks)

(b) State three characteristics of the Mediterranean type of vegetation          (3marks)

5(a) Name two major earthquake zones of the world                                         (2marks)

 (b) Give three factors that influence the rate of weathering                             (3marks)


Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section

6) Study the map of Nyeri 1:50,000 (sheet 120/4) provided and answer the following questions.

a) i) What is the longitudinal extent of the map extract?                         (2marks)

ii) Give the Four figure grid reference of the labour camp near Mweiga estate                                                                                                                              (2marks)

iii) Identify two districts in the area covered by the map.                              (2marks)

b) i) Give two methods used to represent relief on the map                               (2marks)

ii) State three problems that maybe encountered during the construction of roads in the area covered by the map                                                                                              (3marks)

c) Citing evidence from the map, give three reasons why cattle rearing is widespread in Nyeri area.                                                                                                             (6marks)

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d) i) Apart from administration, give three other services provided in the area covered by Nyeri map

ii) Describe the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map       (4marks).

iii) Give two factors that favour coffee growing in Nyeri Map                         (2marks)

7) (i) Apart from fold mountains, name three other features resulting from folding                                                                                                                                     (3marks) ii) On the outline map of Africa provided, name the feature marked x, y and z.                                                                                                                                            (3marks)

iii) Describe the formation of Fold Mountains                                                     (5marks)

c) (i) Name four major orogeny                                                                             (4marks)

ii) Using a well labelled diagram describe the formation of an Asymmetrical fold                                                                                                                                        (6marks)

(d) Explain two ways in which Fold Mountains influence climate                   (4marks)

8) a (i) What is a river divide                                                                                  (2marks)

ii) Describe three ways by which a river transports its load.                             (6marks)

(b) Describe the characteristics of river in its old stage                                      (4marks)

(c) Describe each of the following drainage patterns

i) Superimposed drainage pattern                                                                         (3marks)

ii) Centripetal drainage pattern                                                                              (2marks)

d) (i) What is a delta                                                                                                (2marks)

ii) The diagram below shows a section of a river. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

Name the features marked S and T                                                                        (2marks)

iii) State four conditions that are necessary for the formation of the feature marked S. (4marks)

9 (a) Describe the following characteristics of minerals

  1. Colour                                                                                                                  (2 marks)
  2. Cleavage                                                                                                             (2marks)
  3. Hardness                                                                                                            (2 marks)
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b) (i) Give two types of igneous rocks                                                                  (2marks)

  1. Explain three conditions necessary for the growth of coral polyps           (3marks)

c) Describe three ways in sedimentary rocks are formed                                   (9marks)

d) (i) What is rock metamorphism?                                                                       (2marks)

(ii) State three causes of heat and pressure during metamorphism.            (3marks)

10 a (i) What is soil catena                                                                                     (2marks)

(ii) Draw a labelled diagram to show a well develop soil profile.                     (5marks)

(iii) State three characteristics of soils found in the arid regions of Kenya      (3marks)

(b) Give three factors that determine the colour of soils                                           (3mks)

  • Describe how lateralization occurs                                                                  (6marks)

d) Describe how the following types of erosion occur.

  1. Sheet erosion                                                                                                      (2marks)
  2. Gulley erosion                                                                                                    (2marks)

d) Give two factors that influence the thickness of a soil                                   (2marks)

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